Application of Digital Image Correlation to Study the Tensile Properties of Spacer Fabric

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Textile Engineering, University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran,

2 Textile Engineering Dpt.Yazd University,Yazd,Iran


The importance of understanding three-dimensional spacer fabrics properties, is a reason to the development of rapid and accurate methods for determining properties, due to their numerous applications in various industries. In most applications, spacer fabrics are affected by tension; therefore, knowing their behaviour in the encounter with tension is important. The purpose of this paper is to investigate on deformation of the spacer fabric and determine the local displacements in this fabric under tension. So, the digital image correlation method was used, that is a usual method of determining the displacements and deformation of a structure under external loading. Deformation behaviour of the diamond shape unit the of spacer fabrics structure at different tensile strains, based on experimental observations and theoretical analysis using video processing and digital image correlation method was investigated in the course and wale direction. The fabric unit deformation, the distribution of the local displacements and longitudinal and transverse strain of fabric were determined using video processing and compared with experimental method. Comparison of results showed that video processing method is able to calculate the local displacement in fabric and predict the longitudinal and transverse strain at different tensile strains with an error coefficient less than 10%.


[1] Şengöz, “Bagging in textiles”, Textile Progress, vol. 36, pp. 1-64, 2004.
[2] Liu, J. Lu, J. Hu, and A. Chung, “Study on the bagging behavior of knitted fabrics by shape memory polyurethane fiber”, Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 104, no. 11, pp. 1230-1236, 2013.
[3] Hasani, S. H. Zadeh and S. Behtaj, “Bagging behavior of different fabric structures knitted from blended yarns using image processing”, Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, vol. 7, no. 3, 2012.
[4] Azaza, B. Jaouachi, A. Douik, L. Schacher and D. Adolphe, “Evaluation of residual bagging volume using 3D image analysis technique”, The Journal of The Textile Institute, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2015.
[5] Dehghani, A. Valipouri and S. Minapoor, “Investigating the effect of underlying fabric on the bagging behaviour of denim fabrics (RESEARCH NOTE)”, International Journal of Engineering, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1231-1237, 2019.
[7] D. Tohidi, A. A. Jeddi and H. Nosrati, “Analyzing of the woven fabric geometry on the bending rigidity properties”, International Journal of Textile Science, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 73-80, 2013.
[8] Naujokaitytė, E. Strazdienė and J. Domskienė, “Investigation of fabric behaviour in bias extension at low loads”, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, pp. 59-63, 2008.
[9] Domskienė and E. Strazdienė, “Investigation of fabric shear behaviour”, Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, vol. 13, pp. 26-30, 2005.
[10] Dridi, F. Morestin and A. Dogui, “Use of digital image correlation to analyse the shearing deformation in woven fabric”, Experimental Techniques, vol. 36, pp. 46-52, 2012.
[11] Mishra, H. Jamshaid and J. Militky, “Investigation of mechanical properties of basalt woven fabrics by theoretical and image analysis methods”, Fibers and Polymers, vol. 18, pp. 1369-1381, 2017.
[12] Arumugama, R. Mishraa, M. Tunakb, J. Militkya, D. Kremenakovaa and M. Venkatramana, “Image Processing and Experimental Techniques for Studying Intra-ply Shear Behavior of 3D Weft Knitted Spacer Fabrics”, Journal of Fiber Bioengineering and Informatics, vol. 9, pp. 63-76, 2016.
[13] Arumugam, R. Mishra, M. Tunak, B. Tomkova and J. Militky, “Study on the in-plane shear performance of spacer fabrics in composite forming”, Materiali in Tehnologije, vol. 52, pp. 47-50, 2018.
[14] Zhu, B. Mobasher and S. RAJAN, “Experimental Study of Shear Behavior of Kevlar 49 Fabrics”, in 29th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, ASC 2014; 16th US-Japan Conference on Composite Materials; ASTM-D30 Meeting, 2014.
[15] Ragab, A. Fouda, H. El-Deeb and A. Hemdan, “A Simple Method for Measuring Fabric Drape Using Digital Image Processing”, Journal of Textile Science and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 5, 2017.
[16] Jeong and D. Phillips, “A study of fabric-drape behaviour with image analysis. Part II: the effects of fabric structure and mechanical properties on fabric drape”, Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 89, pp. 70-79, 1998.
[17] K. Choudhary and P. Bansal, “Drape measurement technique using manikins with the help of image analysis,” In Manikins for Textile Evaluation, pp. 173-195. Woodhead Publishing, 2017.
[18] Jeong, “A study of fabric-drape behaviour with image analysis part I: Measurement, characterisation, and instability”, Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 89, pp. 59-69, 1998.
[19] Robson and C. C. Long, “Drape analysis using imaging techniques”, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, vol. 18, pp. 1-8, 2000.
[20] Giwa, E. Achukwu and M. Shebe, “Measurement of fabric drape using digital image processing”, African Journal of Natural Sciences (AJNS) ISSN 1119-1104, vol. 13, 2015.
[21] Kenkare and T. May-Plumlee, “Fabric drape measurement: A modified method using digital image processing,” Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management, vol. 4, pp. 1-8, 2005.
[22] Rubeziene, I. Padleckiene, S. V. Zuravliova and J. Baltusnikaite, “Reduction of thermal signature using fabrics with conductive additives”, Materials Science, vol. 19, pp. 409-414, 2013.
[23] Wang, X. Li, J. Li and B. Xu, “A new approach to quantify the thermal shrinkage of fire protective clothing after flash fire exposure”, Textile Research Journal, vol. 86, pp. 580-592, 2016.
[24] Yildiz, A. Buldu, M. Demetgul and Z. Yildiz, “A novel thermal-based fabric defect detection technique”, The Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 106. pp. 275-283, 2015.
[25] Yıldız, A. Buldu and M. Demetgul, “A thermal-based defect classification method in textile fabrics with K-nearest neighbor algorithm”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, vol. 45, pp. 780-795, 2016.
[26] Yıldız, A. Buldu and M. Demetgul, “Fault Detection of Textile Fabrics with Thermal Base Image Processing”, Conference: 7th International Advanced Technologies Symposium (IATS’13), At: İstanbul, 2015.
[27] Emadi, M. A. Tavanaie and P. Payvandy, “An Investigation of Structural-Mechanical Properties of Spun-Bonded Non-Woven Using Computer Vision Method”, Journal of Textiles and Polymers, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-13, 2019.
[28] Emadi, M. A. Tavanaie and P. Payvandy, “Measurement of the uniformity of thermally bonded points in polypropylene spunbonded non-wovens using image processing and its relationship with their tensile properties”, Autex Research Journal, vol. 18, pp. 405-418, 2018.
[29] Nohut, M. Tascan, O. Akgobek and T. Arici, “Estimation of areal weight, grab tensile strength, and elongation at break of PP spunbond nonwovens using digital image analysis and artificial neural networks”, Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, vol. 10, 2015.
[30] Baghernezhad, M. Ghane and M. Moezzi, “Strain monitoring in woven fabrics with locally induced mass irregularities using an image based method”, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 2016.
[31] Jariyapunya and S. Baheti, “Application of image analysis method for measurement of fabric stretch deformation”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 254, no. 14, p. 142010, 2017.
[32] Xin and J. Hu, “An Image Based Method for Characterising the Mechanical Behaviours of Fabrics. Part 1, The Measurement of In-plane Tensile Behaviour”, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, pp. 72-75, 2008.
[33] Wang, H. Hu, and X. Xiao, “Deformation behaviors of three-dimensional auxetic spacer fabrics”, Textile research journal, vol. 84, pp. 1361-1372, 2014.
[34] Wang and H. Hu, “A finite element analysis of an auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabric structure”, Textile research journal, vol. 85, pp. 404-415, 2015.
[35] Wang and H. Hu, “Tensile and forming properties of auxetic warp-knitted spacer fabrics”, Textile research journal, vol. 87, pp. 1925-1937, 2017.
[36] Chang and P. Ma, “Energy absorption and Poisson's ratio of warp-knitted spacer fabrics under uniaxial tension”, Textile Research Journal, vol. 89, pp. 903-913, 2019.
[37] Ghorbani, A. A. Jeddi, and H. Dabiryan, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of tensile properties of net warp-knitted spacer fabrics”, The Journal of The Textile Institute, vol. 111, pp. 518-528, 2020.
[38] Chu, W. Ranson and M. A. Sutton, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics”, Experimental mechanics, vol. 25, pp. 232-244, 1985.
[39] Hagara, P. Lengvarsky and J. Bocko, “Numerical verification of a full-field deformation analysis of a specimen loaded by combined loading”, Science and Education Publishing, 2014.